Understanding the Levels of a Felony Case in India

In case you are going through a felony cost in India, you could surprise what are the phases of a felony case and what to anticipate in every stage. A felony case generally is a advanced and prolonged course of, involving varied legal guidelines, procedures and items of proof, as ADR mechanisms just like the Mediation Invoice 2021 usually are not legitimate for them.

On this weblog, we are going to clarify the primary phases of a felony case in India primarily based on the Code of Felony Process, 1973 (CrPC), which is the procedural legislation for crime and punishment in India.

Classification of Felony Instances

Felony circumstances are categorized into two sorts in India: warrant circumstances and summons circumstances. A warrant case pertains to offences punishable with demise, imprisonment for all times or imprisonment for greater than seven years. Whereas a summons case is one which pertains to crime and punishment with imprisonment for lower than seven years or with a positive solely.

The classification of a felony case determines the mode of trial, the process of investigation and the powers of the court docket. Typically, warrant circumstances are extra severe and comply with a extra elaborate process than summons circumstances.

Submitting of FIR or Criticism

The second stage of a felony case is the submitting of a First Data Report (FIR) or a grievance. An FIR is a written doc ready by the police once they obtain details about the fee of a cognizable offence (an offence for which the police can arrest with out a warrant). Whereas, a grievance is a written or oral allegation made to a Justice of the Peace concerning the fee of an offence (cognizable or non-cognizable).

An FIR or a grievance initiates the felony case and units the investigation in movement. The police must register an FIR with none delay or refusal and supply a replica to the informant. For complaints. The Justice of the Peace has to look at and determine whether or not to take cognizance (discover) of the offence and provoke the subsequent step for crime and punishment.

Investigation by Police

The third stage of a felony case is the investigation by the police for the aim of:

  • Amassing proof
  • Recording statements
  • Interrogating suspects
  • Conducting searches and seizures, and
  • Making ready a cost sheet (a report containing particulars of the offence, proof and accused).

The investigation course of differs relying on whether or not the offence is cognizable or non-cognizable. For cognizable offences, the police can begin the investigation with none permission from the Justice of the Peace.

The investigation must be accomplished inside an inexpensive time, normally inside 60 or 90 days, relying on the character of the offence. This stage of crime and punishment ends with the police submitting the cost sheet to the Justice of the Peace.

Committal or Switch of Case

The fourth stage of a felony case is committal or switch, which applies solely to warrant circumstances which might be triable by periods courts (courts that take care of severe crime and punishment). A Justice of the Peace might also conduct a preliminary inquiry to determine whether or not there are ample grounds for committing or transferring the case to periods.

Framing of Costs

The fifth stage of a felony case is the framing of prices. This stage marks the start of the trial and includes studying out and explaining the fees to the accused by the court docket. The fees are primarily based on the allegations made within the FIR or grievance and supported by proof collected throughout an investigation.

The framing of prices is completed by completely different courts relying on whether or not it’s a warrant case or a summons case. Relying on whether or not the accused pleads responsible or not responsible to every cost framed in opposition to him, he could also be convicted and sentenced by the court docket, or face trial to find out his crime and punishment.

Trial Stage

The sixth stage of a felony case is the trial stage. This stage includes examination and cross-examination of witnesses, manufacturing and admission of proof, arguments and rebuttals by either side, assertion and defence by the accused, and so on. The trial stage follows completely different procedures relying on whether or not it’s a warrant case or a summons case.

Warrant Case

For warrant circumstances, the trial stage consists of the next steps:

  • The prosecution (the facet that accuses the offender) produces and examines its witnesses and proof earlier than the court docket. Nonetheless, the accused or his lawyer from the greatest legislation agency in Chandigarhor elsewhere has the proper to cross-examine the prosecution witnesses and problem their proof.
  • After the prosecution closes its proof, the court docket questions the accused on the idea of the proof in opposition to him. The accused has the proper to reply or stay silent.
  • After the assertion of the accused, the court docket offers a possibility to the accused to provide and study his witnesses and proof in his defence. The prosecution has the proper to cross-examine the defence witnesses and problem the defence proof.
  • After the defence closes its proof, either side current their closing arguments earlier than the court docket. The court docket might also ask questions or search clarification from either side.

Summons Case

For summons circumstances, the trial stage is less complicated and consists of solely two steps:

  • The court docket hears either side and takes their proof. It might additionally study any witness or doc that it considers vital for a simply determination.
  • After taking the proof from either side, the court docket hears their closing arguments.

Judgement Stage

The ultimate stage of a felony case includes the pronouncement and supply of the judgement by the court docket, which has to:

  • Be delivered inside an inexpensive time, normally inside 30 days from the date of the conclusion of the trial.
  • State clearly whether or not the accused is acquitted or convicted of every cost, and if convicted, what sentence is imposed on him.
  • State the explanations for acquittal or conviction and point out the proof and legislation relied upon by the court docket.

The judgement could also be appealed by both facet to the next court docket inside a prescribed time restrict, relying on the character and severity of the crime and punishment.


A felony case in India generally is a lengthy and complex course of, involving varied phases, legal guidelines and procedures relying upon the crime and punishment. It is crucial for anybody going through a felony cost to grasp these phases and their rights and obligations at every stage. It’s also advisable to hunt authorized help from a reliable lawyer from Lex Options who can information and signify them all through the case.


  1. What are the three foremost phases of felony circumstances in India?

The three foremost phases that felony circumstances, on the whole, may be divided into are the pre-trail stage, trial stage, and post-trail stage.

  1. Is there any legislation apart from the CrPC that comprises guidelines about felony proceedings?

Sure, apart from the CrPC, the Indian Penal Code (IPC) of 1860 additionally comprises guidelines about felony proceedings.

  1. Can a session court docket tackle a felony case straight?

No, periods courts can not take cognisance of any felony offence straight until they commit it to periods by a Justice of the Peace.

  1. Which is the very best legislation agency for felony circumstances in Chandigarh?

Lex Options is the very best legislation agency in Chandigarh for coping with or serving to you with felony circumstances.